Journal of the National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing

The Journal of the National Black Association for
Speech-Language and Hearing
(JNBASLH), formerly known as ECHO: The Journal of the National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing, is the official peer-reviewed journal of the National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing. It is based in the United States and is an international, peer-reviewed e-journal concerning communication and communication disorders and differences within and across socially, culturally, and linguistically diverse populations, with an emphasis on those populations who are underserved.

ECHO: Journal of the National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing
ISSN: 1943-4316

JNBASLH: Journal of the National Black Association for Speech-Language and Hearing (Spring 2017 - present)
ISSN: 2832-7403

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2021 ISSUE

Volume 16, No. 1 Spring 2021

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

Looking Deeper in the Assessment of Children with Sickle Cell Disease: A Need to Consider Language Development and Language Disruption Issues
Candice J. Adams-Mitchell, CCC-SLP.D, Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Fatima Jebahi, BSc (Hons), Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Fulbright Association, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders that is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin (Hb, S) which causes red blood cells to become sickle-shaped and rigid. The burden of SCD results in chronic fatigue, neurological complications, frequent hospitalizations, pain, and adverse pharmaceutical side effects from medications used to manage SCD and illnesses associated with SCD. Individuals with SCD are at an increased of mortality and morbidity as a result of neurological infarcts, infections, acute chest syndrome, and vaso- occlusive pain crisis. Many children with SCD frequently experience lower school achievement and attainment relative to students without SCD. There are significant gaps in the literature regarding the strong association of SCD and speech and language development in children. We propose there is an inherent need for early therapeutic intervention for cognitive and language development and disruption issues along with academic support for the many children with SCD who experience frequent hospitalizations and subsequently school absences thus impacting their academic performance.

 

Communication Implications: Face Masks and Students Who are Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing
Nicole Eide, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Educational Leadership and Policy, Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York

ABSTRACT

Many people, regardless of hearing ability, perceive information from seeing the faces of others, and most individuals who are Deaf and Hard-of Hearing (DHH) lip-read to some extent during conversation. For the DHH, mask-wearing can become a hinderance that makes daily life more challenging. In this new “normal” of daily life brought about by the onset of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, mask-wearing and physical distancing have become essential safety measures that we must take in order to keep ourselves and others safe. Face masks have become a public and social-gathering norm in addition to a primary line of defense against COVID-19. However, this barrier of protection has added a barrier of communication for the DHH. From bank tellers to physicians, therapists, and teachers, professionals around the country are treating and interacting through a barrier. For individuals who rely on lip-reading and facial expressions to communicate, the increased use of facial coverings can lead to even greater sense of isolation. The goal of this work is to highlight communication challenges encountered by the DHH community when communicating with others wearing face masks and offer simple solutions to address the difficulties that mask-wearing presents to this population.

 

COVID-19: Equal Access to Remote Learning and Tele-Therapy

Nicole Eide, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Educational Leadership and Policy, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, USA

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), like a sweeping tsunami, has caused unfathomable tragedy worldwide. It has thrown many families into economic despair causing widespread job losses and furloughs. COVID-19 has led to deep anxiety and grief for lost loved ones. Our goal as therapists has remained the same: ensure every student, regardless of background, ethnicity and socioeconomic status has equal access to therapeutic intervention. COVID-19 has uncovered inequities in therapeutic service delivery by identifying clusters of clients who have no access to and difficulty using remote learning technology.

 

Responsible Research Rigor: The Key to Overcoming Systemic Racism in Communication Sciences Research
Molly M. Jacobs, Ph.D., Department of Health Services & Information Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Charles Ellis, Ph.D., Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

By continuing use of conventional tools of assessment, employing uni-disciplinary research teams and interpreting results only on a cursory level, researchers may be continuing to cling to practices that contribute the systematic racism that has cluttered research for decades. Use of multidisciplinary teams, incorporation of innovative modes of assessment and consideration of new social and biological determinants will allow researchers to utilize their skills as instruments for social change and benefit those vulnerable and marginalized populations who are in need.

 

Listeners’ Variable Reactions to the Expression “Accent”
Rahul Chakraborty, California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, CA, USA
Olivia Corona, Bilingual SLP Intern with Austin Independent School District, Austin, TX, USA
William Hammers, Bilingual SLP, Laredo, TX, USA
Sallie Hobbs, Bilingual SLP Intern with Austin Independent School District, Austin, TX, USA
Parvinder K. Sublok, Fairfax County Public Schools, Fairfax, VA, USA

ABSTRACT

This paper explores listeners’ potential bias to the expression, ‘accent,’ when listeners’ were asked to associate names of different variations of English accent with several unrelated psychophysical attributes. In addition, the elevated need for culturally calibrated sensitivity towards nonnative accents in the field of speech-language pathology is discussed. Participants responded to twenty-five questions, where only names of different nonnative varieties of accent and different psychophysical attributes were presented. No audio clips or acoustic cues of different accents were provided. One hundred and nineteen participants from varying backgrounds, including some from the field of speech-language pathology, participated. The study results indicate participants associated accents with various unrelated psychophysical attributes. Additionally, members from the speech-language pathology community also exhibited similar bias. This study offers a preliminary caution that, despite relentless focus on multicultural awareness, speech-language pathologists are not immune to accent related bias.

 

Parent Reported Challenges for Teens with ASD Transitioning to Young Adulthood
Belinda Daughrity, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Speech-Language Pathology, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA
Erica Ellis, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Disorders, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Ashley Wiley Johnson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, The Wiley Center for Speech and Language Development, Culver City, CA, USA

ABSTRACT

Teens with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can experience challenges with transitioning out of high school and into young adulthood. Exploring diverse parent perceptions of challenges during this time is critical to best support the needs of an increasing diverse population of children receiving speech and language intervention services. Methods Participants were 13 parents of 11 culturally and/or linguistically diverse teens with an existing diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder who participated in a 90-minute focus group to explore their perceptions about perceived challenges with their child’s transition to young adulthood. Results Qualitative data analysis explored parent reports of concerns throughout this critical transition period. Results revealed primary themes of employment, independence, transition support, and meaningful reciprocal relationships as parents’ greatest concerns. Discussion Analysis revealed parents have significant reservations during this critical period with limited knowledge of supports to assist during this transition. Suggestions to alleviate these challenges are provided such as engaging in early and repeated intervention focused on prevocational goals for teens preparing to transition to young adulthood, promoting pipelines to employment within the community to broaden access to valuable networks of future support, and intentionally sharing positive outcomes with parents to mitigate concerns. Speech-language pathologists and other allied health professionals can use findings to inform their clinical practices to serve culturally diverse clients preparing to transition out of high school.

 

Effects of a Vocabulary Scenario Technique on Ninth Grade English Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition
Kimmerly Harrell, Department of Otolaryngology Head/Neck Surgery and Communicative Disorders, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
Karen Davis, Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, USA
Shalander “Shelly” Samuels, English Language Arts, Orange County Public Schools, Orlando, FL, USA
Hannah E. Acquaye, Department of Counselling Psychology, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana
Enrique Puig, Morgridge International Reading Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a peer led intervention aimed at improving vocabulary acquisition through explicit vocabulary instruction. The Vocabulary Scenario Technique English Learner Peer (VST-ELP) protocol was administered to the experimental group. The VST-ELP protocol used was an adapted version of the original Vocabulary Scenario Technique. The control group received typical vocabulary instruction from their classroom teacher. The experimental group participants made gains in mean scores from pre- to post-test measures. The results suggest that the Vocabulary Scenario Technique English Learner Peer Protocol was effective in proving the vocabulary acquisition of ninth grade English Learners (ELs). Practical implications are discussed, and recommendations provided.

 

Forging Community Partnerships to Reduce Health Disparities in Low-Income African American Elders of North St. Louis at Risk for Dementia
Whitney Anne Postman, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
Sydney Rosenthal, Neuroscience Program and School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA
Samantha Thompson, Laura Sankey, Kailin Leisure, Rebecca Ferron, Tayla Slay, Maureen Fischer, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA

ABSTRACT

Low-income African American elders experience disproportionately high prevalence of dementia, preventable hospitalizations, healthcare cost and caregiver burden. We describe our clinical program of group therapy services for low-income community-dwelling African American elders at risk for dementia, in partnership with two community health centers in the historic neighborhood of The Ville in North St. Louis. During our group sessions conducted in a revered setting at the heart of this neighborhood, our interventions incorporated culturally meaningful activities informed by input from participants and on-site staff. The program also promoted aging health literacy, leveraged local university and community resources for guest lectures and engaged in referrals to related health services as well as training on mobile technology devices. As a result of their involvement in our weekly group sessions, participants reported a) implementation of actionable new knowledge acquired during our activities and discussions; b) less stigma surrounding their perceived disabilities; increased utilization of local healthcare services; and c) enhanced confidence and independence with mobile technology. Preliminary data suggest that our provision of comprehensive, integrated and preventive services through our campus-community partnership can be a model for reducing health disparities that systematically affect African American elders at risk for dementia.

 

Curl Your Tongue Seven Times Before You Speak: Translating English Storybooks Read Aloud in Vietnamese
Maria Diana Gonzales, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Disorders, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA
Quan Nguyen, B.S., Department of Communication Disorders, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA
Amy Louise Schwarz, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Disorders, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA

Matthew Nguyen, M.S., Department of Communication Disorders, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA
Antonio Gragera, Ph.D., Department of Modern Languages, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
Maria Resendiz, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Disorders, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA
Andrea Hughes, M.S., CCC-SLP, Pflugerville ISD, Pflugerville, TX, USA
Phuong Palafox, M.S., CCC-SLP, Bilinguistics, Austin, TX, USA

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine how individuals with different proficiency levels and dialects in English and Vietnamese engaged in “real time” translation of a children’s book. In an effort to determine the syntactic and semantic measures that distinguish the oral translation of a children’s storybook by Vietnamese- English-speaking bilingual adults, two participants with differing proficiency levels and Vietnamese dialects were asked to translate Don Freeman’s (1968) Corduroy. The study showed that the participant who was less fluent in Vietnamese used fewer words than the participant who was more fluent. In addition, the participant who was less fluent in Vietnamese used more: 1) semantically related substitutions, 2) code switching, 3) semantically related additions, and 4) omissions. The authors suggest that it is important to prepare before translating storybooks paying particular attention to maintain the vocabulary and syntactic complexity in the text of the original storybook. Preparation is needed before translating a children’s book since real-time translation may result in decreased complexity of the text.


2020 Issues

Volume 15, Number 3, Winter 2020

(posted 12/21/2020)

Errata and Addendums for Volume 15, Number 3, Winter 2020

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

Letter to the Editor
Linda Redford Taylor, MA CCC-SLP

 

One of One: Addressing Feelings of Isolation among Black Students in CSD
Maddie Mayes, B.S., Master’s Student, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH
Morgan Payne, Undergraduate Student, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH
Amber D. Franklin, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Associate Professor and Chief Departmental Advisor, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH

ABSTRACT

Black speech-language pathologists (SLP) often join the profession for reasons rooted in community and connectedness, such as having a family member with a speech or hearing disorder or after shadowing a Black SLP from their community. Yet, for many Black SLP students at predominantly white institutions (PWI), community is often absent from their educational experience. We write this commentary as two Black students, one graduate and one undergraduate, attending a PWI, Miami University of Ohio.

 

Coupling Degrees, Breaking the Silence, and Seeing What I Can Be
Amira C. Jessie, B.A., Jackson State University, Jackson, MS

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a Black student’s perspective as she finds her voice through her dual undergraduate degrees in Speech and Hearing Science and Comparative Ethnic Studies. The paper follows her development through graduate school as she encounters her first Black professors and mentors. Her graduate experience culminates with the student using her voice effectively to combat racism in her graduate program with her peers and in her clinical environments.

 

Breaking the Silence: Action Steps for Eradicating Racism in CSD
Kaylee D. Stowe, B.S., Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC

ABSTRACT

As racially motivated violence in our country toward its Black citizens is being exposed with alarming frequency, so are the structures that uphold this violence. During these unprecedented times, members of our Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) community have courageously shared their stories of racial prejudice and discrimination. These experiences of injustice should not be normalized as they have a negative impact on the members of our community who are already severely marginalized due to lack of diversity in our field. This lack of diversity has a direct correlation with the negative experiences of Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) individuals who are working to become Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists. In response, it is time that we as a community take action to engage in the work of being anti-racist. It is imperative that the field of CSD acknowledge the actions that are enabling systemic racism on a National, University, and personal level. After acknowledging these actions, strides toward accountability must be enacted. Embracing anti-racism and the responsibility of creating a truly equitable field is no small assignment. However, it is a long overdue duty that is within our reach, should the majority be willing to do the work.

 

Implementation of a Racial Equity Course within a Communication Sciences and Disorders Graduate Program: A Student Perspective
Elizabeth M. Evans, B.S., Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
Kimberly D. Mueller, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Wisconsin – Madison; Division of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI

ABSTRACT

Although the systemic racism underlying institutional designs has been ignored and manipulated since American’s foundations, the drive to change those systems has waxed and waned. As my mind constantly shifts through ideas for change, I find myself confronting that every abstract goal, must be broken down into tangible actions. It was in a discussion with a peer in mid-June from my undergraduate program that developing a racial equity course, an area I found most Master of Sciences in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) programs to be lacking in, could be a tangible action for the abstract goal of developing a more diverse CSD community. I feel that I am frequently challenged with whether I am sufficiently using the resources and support I have to guide the path to more culturally competent clinicians and a more welcoming field for historically disenfranchised groups, with respect to both the clients we serve, and future clinicians. When considering long term change and the significant lack of previous education, the necessity of racial equity courses in the Speech Language Pathology (SLP) field is undeniable.

 

The Need for Interdisciplinary Collaboration and Police Training on How to Interact with Diverse Individuals with Autism and Other Cognitive-Communication Disabilities
Hannah Hoyns, B.S., Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC

ABSTRACT

Although police brutality against marginalized groups of people is not a new concept, specific data surrounding incidents of individuals with disabilities is scarce. However, since 2016, police departments across the nation have been obligated to report arrest-related fatalities to the U.S. Department of Justice under penalty of loss of ten percent of their federal funding (Swaine, 2016). However, Swaine (2016) reported that even with this requirement, police have been able to avoid the repercussions of losing ten percent of their federal funding because the law has been largely ignored since being reauthorized in 2014. Thanks to a few individuals and organizations, accounts of citizen’s violent encounters with police are being documented. For example, Brian Burghart, developed “Fatal Encounters”, a growing national search engine of persons killed during interactions with police. Also, the Guardian’s “The Counted”, represents an ongoing effort to document all deaths caused by law enforcement officers. Likewise, The Washington Post, has quantified individuals with mental health and intellectual disabilities who were shot and/or killed by police. Similarly, thanks should be given to the Ruderman Foundation and Elinoam Abramov for analyzing the above databases and numerous other resources resulting in an overwhelming numbers of cases being systematically reviewed and compiled to develop a tangible idea of the intersectionality between disability and police violence and how other factors such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status can multiply risks of violent and fatal encounters with law enforcement.

 

A Call to Action: Communication Harm Reduction for Immigrant Children Separated from Families
Rachel Mooneyham, B.A., Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC

ABSTRACT

An especially tragic component of the Trump administration’s “zero tolerance” crackdown on illegal border crossing has been the separation of thousands of Latino children from their parents at the U.S.-Mexico border since summer 2017. In November 2020, lawyers working to reunite those families reported being unable to reach the deported parents of 545 of those children (Merchant, 2020). The children, many of whom were infants and toddlers when they were separated from their parents, have been cared for by government employees in Health and Human Services (HHS) shelters for months, pending home studies and international legal issues. Some have also been placed with relatives residing in the U.S., while their parents have been prosecuted.

 

Addressing ASHA President’s Statement: An African American Perspective
Mia McWilliams, B.S., Department of Communicative Disorders, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS [ERRATUM NOTICE]

What is it to be a black Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP)? It is seeing curricula taught about equality and compassion for African Americans, but not seeing it applied in actuality. It is being perceived as “less of an SLP” when using native vernacular (African American English/AAE) instead of Mainstream American English (MAE) because an SLP’s diction should always resemble that of a white person’s. It is being told by your governing body that “All Lives Matter” in response to a “Black Lives Matter” movement. In a field in which I am already disproportionately represented as an African American woman, it was very disheartening to discover that I did not have the moral or emotional support of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA).

 

The Burden of Imposter Syndrome: A Student Perspective
Amira Jessie, B.A., Department of Communicative Disorders, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS [ERRATUM NOTICE]

When ASHA published its initial inclusion statement of “All live matters” in response to the George Floyd incident, many of my Black classmates, peers across the profession, and I were hurt and felt even more alienated in a profession dominated by middle class white women. When a hurting child comes to a parent for comfort, the parent does not say, “I love all of my children equally,” in response to that hurt. So, our faculty and socially proactive students united to provide an opportunity to faculty and students to share, to grieve, and to grow.

 

All Lives Cannot Matter Until Black Lives Matter
Cortise Brown, B.A., Department of Communicative Disorders, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS

“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly.” These are wise words from the late Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. In other words, racism should not be tolerated in any form or manner. You’ve heard the saying “one bad apple ruins the whole bunch before”, right? Well, that’s the case in this situation. If racism prevails in any place, it can be and will be detrimental to the places where racism does not exist. It can be compared to a virus, which spreads from person to person.

 

In Response to ASHA
Patrice Hampton, B.S., Department of Communicative Disorders, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS

Racism is unfair, unequal, and it could even be considered unethical. There is not an association in the world that should tolerate racism. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association’s (ASHA) initial stance against racism was subtle and misleading. As an African American, I was shocked at how ASHA issued the statement regarding racism as well as the lack of thought that was put into the statement. They left out a lot of information and their follow-up statement did not provide much clarification.

 

Strategic Measures to Reduce Racism & Prejudice in Higher Education
Keyra-Nicole Lecointe, M.S., CF-SLP, RCM Healthcare Services, New York, NY

Racism is deeply rooted in the educational, health, and social systems in the United States of America. Students from minority backgrounds face more challenges in higher education compared to students from non-minority backgrounds. For example, the lack of representation of educators can contribute to a feeling of not belonging and implicit bias and prejudice in higher education. These challenges can impact the success of minority students, as well as their mental health. The objective of this review is to highlight the different types of challenges minority students face in higher education and to provide possible solutions to tackle these challenges.

 

Journey to Cultural Competence: Perceptions of a Multicultural Course in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Audrey Farrugia, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI [ERRATUM NOTICE]

The field of communication sciences and disorders requires multicultural content in graduate programs. This qualitative study explored student perceptions of a foundational multicultural course in its ability to increase cultural competence. The findings revealed that the student participants made growth; they gained new knowledge and skills for working with culturally and linguistically diverse clients, they critically questioned issues, and they reflected on their cultural competence journey. The results suggest that we need more than just a single multicultural course in order to better prepare speech-language pathologists to work increase cultural competence and better serve culturally and linguistically diverse clients.

 

Leveraging the History of Black Excellence in Medicine to Promote Health Equity for Black Elders at Risk for Dementia
Whitney Anne Postman, Ph. D./CCC-SLP, Neuro-Rehabilitation of Language Laboratory, Communication Sciences & Disorders Department, Doisy College of Health Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO
Tayla Slay, B.S. (Expected May 2021), Communication Sciences & Disorders Department, Doisy College of Health Sciences, Department of Sociology & Anthropology, College of Arts & Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO

In this clinical report, we describe our adaptation of group reminiscence therapy to suit the specific cultural characteristics of a group of low-income community-dwelling African American elders in St. Louis who were at risk for dementia. Our setting for addressing the accumulation of a lifetime of racial health disparities experienced by the participants was the historic all-black Homer G. Phillips Hospital in North St. Louis, a legendary symbol of their community’s response to racial health disparities. We connected its history to the current socio-political climate in St. Louis, to empower the participants to assume control of their brain health as they age while facilitating their involvement in their community’s racial justice endeavors. Two highlights of our interventions were a screening of the award-winning documentary film “The Color of Medicine: The Story of Homer G. Phillips Hospital”, and a visit by the non-profit organization 4TheVille to involve our group’s participants in a fundraising art project for restoration of neighborhood landmarks cherished by the local African American community. This fusion of culturally adapted group reminiscence therapy with community activism for racial justice is an example of a clinical solution to racism in geriatric care in the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders.

 

A Phenomenological Study of Multicultural/Multilingual Infusion in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Andrea “Andi” Toliver-Smith, Ph. D. CCC-SLP, Maryville University, St. Louis, MO
Gregory C. Robinson, Ph. D. CCC-SLP, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of multicultural/multilingual infusion (MMI) in communication science and disorders courses from a pedagogical perspective in order to assist future instructors in teaching their students in the area of multicultural issues. Method: The participants were recruited during a National Black Association of Speech, Language, and Hearing (NBASLH) Conference. They completed an online questionnaire with 10 open-ended questions pertaining to how they infused multicultural information into their courses. Results: Survey data revealed various themes that addressed MMI and examples of strategies and activities. Conclusion: The results highlight methods and resources for MMI. The use of MMI as a way to begin eliminating racism with the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders is discussed.

 

Addressing the Effects of Racism in SLP Graduate Students: The Impact of a Dynamic Response Approach
Lollie Vaughan-Robinson, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS
Amira C. Jessie, B.A., Jackson State University, Jackson, MS

ABSTRACT

The lack of diversity in the field of SLP has created a dramatic mismatch between the clinicians providing services and the clients served. Such a mismatch contributes to racism even if unintended. To address this issue, we utilized a dynamic response to address this issue with our students and future clinicians. This qualitative paper describes an innovative approach, which included the viewing of a documentary on racism, implicit bias activities, and guided discussion to address the impact of racism on current SLP students and faculty with a longer-term goal of raising awareness about racism among all racial-ethnic groups. We believe this type of dynamic approach is effective, sustainable, and applicable to SLP programs nationwide.

 

Pathways to the Profession: The UNCG Campamento Hispano Abriendo Nuestro Camino a la Educación (CHANCE) Program
James R. Wyatt, Ph. D., Division of Student Success, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Robert Mayo, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the UNCG CHANCE program, which is a unique experience that provides Latinx high school students with the opportunity to engage in an intensive five‐day college preparation, exposure to academic majors such as communication sciences and disorders, and leadership skills development experience. The program targets rising senior and junior high school students, encouraging them to attend a creative mix of days in the life of typical college students. These experiences include but are not limited to attending mini-classes, course registration, leadership development, team building activities, campus organizations, cultural experiences, college preparation, and civic responsibility. UNCG CHANCE participants engage with university professors, students, staff to develop a peer/professional network forging positive, healthy mentorship connections focused on academic success and personal growth. The ability to easily replicate a program of this nature makes the UNCG CHANCE program an investment that many universities can start with high institutional buy-in and reasonably low cost to the institution, Latinx students, and their families.

 

Sustained Efforts in Racial Transformation: A Call to Action to Train Students in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Vernée Butterfied, Ph. D., CCC-SLP, Booker T. Washington Academy, New Haven, CT
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., Ph. D., CCC-SLP, FNAP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Communication Disorders, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC

ABSTRACT

The reaction to George Floyd’s public murder by the police caused uproar around the world and left educational institutions with the unspoken charge to institute change. This article will focus on developing sustained efforts in training students in communication sciences and disorders to be providers of services while being cognizant of racial equity and inclusive teaching. Information will be addressed regarding skills needed in administration and for academic leaders, faculty, and students.

 

An Unlikely Duo
Molly Jacobs, Ph. D., Department of Health Services & Information Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC

Racism has been a stain on the soul of the United States for centuries. Generations of workers were born, lived and died only knowing a world where communities, neighborhoods and churches were identified by the color of their inhabitants. Their jobs began with compulsory sexual harassment, cyber security and anti-discrimination trainings. Despite efforts, decades of struggle, racism, discrimination and bigotry remain pervasive in every vein of the American workforce even those whose mission is to improve the lives of those they serve like communication sciences and disorders (CSD) and the field of speech language pathology (SLP).

 

Me and Microaggressions: A Framework for Overcoming Microaggressions in Communication Sciences and Disorders Academic Programs
Karen C. Davis, Ph. D. CCC-SLP, Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN

In light of the recent acknowledgment of social and racial injustice in this country, the discipline of communication sciences and disorders (CSD) has been reflecting on the experiences of minority practitioners, faculty, and students. I was assigned to teach a multicultural course this semester. To prepare for my course, I attended several of the live webinars sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), journals, and other special interest organizations. These webinars addressed Issues of cultural diversity and equity within CSD. Panelists that participated in these webinars shared their experiences along with recommendations for change. From these webinars, I heard descriptions of verbal behaviors that appeared to be racial, perpetuated stereotypes, and often disregarded individual’s feelings. The panelists often discussed how these behaviors were not overt, but after a while could negatively impact an individual’s well-being. The term ‘microaggression’ was mentioned. In addition to watching webinars, I researched journal articles regarding recruitment and retention of minority students in CSD. Ginsberg’s (2018) research on African American speech-language pathology students’ academic success caught my attention. She defined and discussed microaggressions that participants in the study experienced.

 

Do Small Islands Count? A Commentary about Combatting Population Bias in CSD Research
Amber D. Franklin, Ph. D., Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Miami University
Keisha T. Lindsay Nurse, Ph. D., Caribbean Speech-Language-Hearing Association

The colliding events of 2020 thus far, including coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and the public outcry surrounding the deaths of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and many other Black men and women across the country, have forced the United States and other nations to reflect upon the impact of racism in our daily lives. The field of Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) has not been spared from this reflection. The present national response is not unlike the enduring protests of the 1950s and 1960s, events that fueled a call for change at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) convention in 1968. At that convention, five Black men, criticized for inciting trouble, publicly echoed the concerns of many when they spoke up against the presence of institutional racism in ASHA, and the organization’s “indifference to the social protests and constitutional changes that were sweeping the American scene” (Wiggins, 2014, p. 10). Both in 1968 and now in 2020, CSD is grappling with the stranglehold of racism.

 

Shifting the Mindset of Racism Through Cognitive Learning Styles in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Alaina S. Davis, Ph. D., CCC-SLP/L, CBIST, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Cathy C. Hughes School of Communications, Howard University, Washington, DC
Shameka Stanford, Ph. D., CCC-SLP/L Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Cathy C. Hughes School of Communications, Howard University, Washington, DC

The recent uprising of racism and systemic bias towards Black lives across the U.S. has been catapulted to the forefront of discussions on disproportionate representation and biased admission practices in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) programs. In particular, Black students in CSD programs nationwide have unified to demand equity in admissions, cultural awareness in courses, and statements of commitments from programs to become intentional in addressing antiracism practices.

 

How Effective Cross-Cultural Mentorship Saved my Doctoral Journey
Kimmerly Harrell, Ph. D., Department of Otolaryngology Head/Neck Surgery and Communicative Disorders, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

ABSTRACT

The journey of completing a doctoral degree is one that is comprised of many twists, turns, and redirecting. Nearly half of all doctoral students who begin their degree do not finish (Cassuto, 2013; Sowell, Allum, & Okahana, 2015). There are numerous challenges that prevent some from completing their degree. Some of those challenges include; lack of support, lack of funding, and systemic sexism and racism just to name a few (Castelló, Pardo, Sala-Bubaré, & Suñe-Soler, 2017; Protivnak & Foss, 2009; Patton, 2009). However, there is one area that can affect the success of doctoral students of color, and that is the barriers that are presented to them by the administration and faculty present in their respective universities. This group, which also includes individuals at the college and departmental level, can be just as influential In the success or failure of students. The purpose of this paper is to share my experience of how cross-cultural mentoring allowed me to complete my doctorate and to provide strategies for current and potential doctoral students, as well as faculty mentors.

 

Still Sitting on the Back of the Bus: Black Communication Sciences and Disorders Academicians Surviving in a System of Bias and Prejudice
Shameka Stanford, Ph. D., CCC-SLP/L, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Cathy C. Hughes School of Communications, Howard University, Washington, DC
Alaina S. Davis, Ph.D., CCC-SLP/L, CBIST, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Cathy C. Hughes School of Communications, Howard University, Washington, DC [ERRATUM NOTICE]

As a profession, racism has been “staring us in the face” for countless decades, yet we have chosen to address everything else around it. As such, solutions for ending racism in the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD), consisting primarily of the professions of speech-language pathology and audiology, requires us to know where we came from, so that we have a better blueprint of where we can go. The fact remains we are still fighting in 2020 to have, (1) our governing professional certification board do more than release a statement about racism; and (2) a space where Black academicians can speak out about biased and prejudiced practices in the academy without repercussion.

 

Language Sampling and Semantics in Dynamic Assessment: Value, Biases, Solutions
Nelson Moses, Ph. D., Long Island University, Brooklyn Campus
Christina Reuterskiöld, Ph.D., New York University
Harriet B. Klein, Ph.D., New York University

ABSTRACT
Dynamic approaches to assessment of child language have provided direction for reducing cultural, linguistic, and racial biases in the practice of speech-language pathology. As Guttierez-McLellan and Peña (2001) wrote:
“A child’s limited test performance may reflect different learning experiences or a lack of Educational opportunity, and not necessarily language deficits. Children from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds may exhibit depressed test performance, yet their performance may not reflect their true abilities or learning potential. On the other hand, CLD children with language impairment may be at risk for under-referral if language difficulties are believed to be language differences. For these children, clinicians must be able to use appropriate methods to differentiate children with a language difference from those with a language disorder (p.212).”
Dynamic assessments consider the potential influence of cultural and linguistic history on children’s responses to tasks; for example, whether dialect differences contributed to an African-American child’s response “He run” to a ‘third-person singular /s/ item on a standardized test (non-obligatory in African-American English). Dynamic assessments also engage the learning process as another control for potentially biased judgements about performance on standardized tests. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that spontaneous language sampling, children’s own ideas and intentionality can play in assuring unbiased assessments of language competence.

 

RACISM: Combating Ways to Eradicate
Dawn M. Stanley, Ph. D., CCC-SLP/L, Southern University A & M College, Baton Rouge, LA [ERRATUM NOTICE]

Does racism really exist within our field of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology? Are people of color underrepresented in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology? Are students in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology programs experiencing racism? Racism is rampant across America. Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, Micheal Brown, Trayvon Martin, Sandra Bland, and George Floyd are African Americans whose lives were unjustly taken. Racism is a concept that is taught and frames individuals mindset to exclusive rights to freedom, enjoyment of certain privileges, and the ability to gain advantages from these rights. Racism within institutions and events seem inexorable from acts of individuals and systems across America and it must be challenged (Vaught & Castagno, 2008). The African Americans who unjustly lost their lives have served as tragic reminders of the ongoing need for us to stand against racism and equality. As members of the American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA), it is our responsibility to create awareness of cultural diversity, underrepresentation of people of color within our field, and take a stance on bridging the disproportionate gaps. These are steps that should be taken as measures to combat racism.


Volume 15, Number 2, Summer 2020

(posted 7/23/2020)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

Coronavirus Pandemic Impact on an International Student: A Perspective
Fatima Jebahi, BH, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA, Fulbright Scholar, Beirut, Lebanon

Amidst spring break, on March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic. Ever since, almost every aspect of our normal life has been affected. Adapting to these unprecedented conditions drastically changed our daily routine and imposed adverse effects on us at multiple levels.

 

A Student Perspective on Clinical and Academic Transitions During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Trials and Rewards
Rachel N. Garrett, BS, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC,USA
Robert Mayo, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA

In this paper, the experiences of a first-year graduate student SLP major during the COVID-19 pandemic are described. Their academic and clinical transitions to online education and telepractice are recounted along with the perceived benefits and barriers associated with these instructional and clinical delivery methods.

 

An Inside Perspective of the Impact of COVID-19 on Higher Education and Clinical Experiences
Keyra-Nicole Lecointe, M.S., CF-SLP, Pace University, New York, NY, USA

According to the United Nations, governments worldwide shut down colleges and universities, resulting in approximately 90% of the world’s student population being at home by mid-April, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (Stancati, 2020). All students were forced to continue learning remotely. Although the same information that was taught in a traditional classroom was being offered, remote learning requires a different level of discipline and perseverance. Many Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) and Audiology (AuD) graduate students still live at home or had to return home due to the impact of COVID-19. With many family members working from home, the learning environment for most students was significantly changed.

 

COVID-19: The Ultimate Test of Academic Resilience
Eshan Pua Schleif, MS CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

Resilience is defined as positive adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances (Martin, 2005). The resilience “toolkit” includes elements of positive psychology, which enhances satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. However, how is the strength of one’s resilience measured? I propose the strength of one’s resilience is measured when encountering difficulty. Consequently, this season of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is the ultimate test of academic resilience. Students can choose to allow the difficult circumstances to determine their academic progress or use this season as an opportunity to establish new healthy strategies.

 

“I Can’t Breathe”: A Doctoral Student Perspective to COVID-19
Lauren R. Prather, M.S., CCC-SLP, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

ABSTRACT

Motivation and mental health can be worsened when doctoral students try to maintain productivity and meet graduation requirements during a deadly pandemic. This perspective discusses the impact of COVID-19 on motivation to complete educational responsibilities within in a doctoral program. “I Can’t Breathe” is used as a metaphor to illustrate the feelings of the added pressures and demands that COVID-19 placed on educational expectations.

 

The Impact of COVID-19 on Doctoral Candidates
Abigail E. Haenssler, MS CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

As universities began to close their campuses due to COVID-19, the focus was primarily on transiting to online courses. University emails, newspaper articles and academic blogs all talked about the difficulty of quickly transitioning to online courses to ensure the students were successful. Gradually other aspects of the university were focused on other areas, such as the use of telehealth for clinics that offered students clinical experiences. It was important to continue to provide clinical opportunities for students as well as continue to serve current patients. One aspect that seemed to be overlooked was the impact COVID-19 would have on the research of doctoral students.

 

The Spread of COVID-19 among Blacks: How does it impact Speech-Language Pathologists (SLPs)?
Kyomi Gregory Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Communication Sciences and Disorders Program, Pace University, New York, NY, USA
Tiffany Henley, Ph.D., Department of Public Health Administration, Pace University, New York, NY, USA
Ana B. Amaya, DrPH, MPH, Health Science Program, Pace University, New York, NY, USA, United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies, Bruges, Belgium

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic persists and data becomes available, there is an urgent need to identify and address the reasons Black communities are disproportionately impacted by the virus. While comorbidities among Blacks are part of the problem, we argue that focusing solely on this issue ignores the root causes that lead to the high COVID-19 cases and fatality rates among minorities. Our analysis shows that examining the structural determinants of health, such as income, access to healthcare, built environment, and social exclusion, are crucial to understanding why this specific minority group has been affected so severely by COVID-19. The direct impact of COVID-19 on the role of the speech-language pathologist (SLP) in healthcare settings along with the need to focus on lifelong cultural humility is discussed. Specific suggestions on how to educate SLPs on the structural barriers to care among Blacks are provided.

 

Teaching in Communication Sciences and Disorders during COVID-19: A Tutorial
Yolanda F. Holt, PhD CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA

ABSTRACT

During the first quarter of 2020 universities across North America quickly transitioned from in-person on-campus instruction to remote learning. While many instructors familiar with the pedagogy and practice of distance education were able to make the transition with limited disruption to their planned educational content other instructors struggled. Moving forward to the fall 2020 semester instructional faculty are facing an unclear academic landscape. It is unclear if there will be a return to in-person instruction, a continuation of remote learning/distance education or some combination thereof. This brief tutorial provides information on the pedagogy of teaching beyond in-person instruction and a roadmap for instructors to create academic content that can be provided under three different scenarios, in-person instruction, hybrid learning or remote learning.

 

Racial Disparities in the Effects of Post-Stroke Isolation: The Unintended Consequences of Social Distancing on Adults with Communication Deficits
Molly Jacobs, PhD, Department of Health Services and Information Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with chronic communication disorders (CCDs). The study was designed to examine disparities among racial and ethnic groups who are traditionally less likely to receive mental health services. Evidence informs the unintended impact of social distancing on individuals with CCDs. Chi-squared tests and ordered logistic regression models evaluated the association severity of depression, chronic communication disorders and race/ethnicity controlling for income, insurance and demographic characteristics. Results indicated that individuals with CCDs have significantly higher levels of depression than those without CCD. African Americans with CCD have higher levels of depression than other CCD groups. Individuals with insurance, higher income, larger households and who see a speech pathologist or therapist had significantly lower depression levels. This study found a higher prevalence of depression among
African Americans living with chronic communication disorders. Recently issued “shelter-in-place” directives forcing Americans to isolate to prevent the spread of COVID-19, have heightened the risk of depression among racial-ethnic minorities living with CCD. Combined with the innate tendency for individuals with CCD to be isolated from society, clinicians should take additional measures to ensure persons with aphasia (PWA), particularly those from racial-ethnic minority backgrounds, are monitored closely to ensure they maintain stable emotional well-being.

 

COVID-19 and Neurological Outcomes: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists in Rehabilitation Settings
Charles Ellis, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Communication Equity and Outcomes Laboratory, East Carolina University, East Carolina University Center for Health Disparities, Greenville, NC, USA
Rhiannon Phillips, MS, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus that has resulted in a disease condition that was initially thought to be primarily focused on the respiratory system in its most severe form. However, as the medical community has learned more about COVID-19, it has become clear that the disease is a multi-system condition with wide-ranging levels of severity from complete asymptomatic infection to death. Among those multi-system problems include the onset of neurological disorders that require specialized speech-language pathology services. Whereas there has been a primary focus on managing the respiratory ailments and infectious nature of COVID-19, there are atypical neurological aspects of the condition that will require specialized speech-language pathology services (SLP). Consequently, more must be learned about the onset of neurological disorders resulting from COVID-19 and potential future implications for the field of SLP.

 

Let’s Not Fall Short: COVID-19, Social Justice and Speech-Language Pathology
RaMonda Horton, PhD, CCC-SLP, Speech-Language Pathology Program, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL, USA

It is now well established that COVID-19 negatively and disproportionately impacts the physiological, economic, And educational outcomes of communities of color. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently updated their website to include a summary report of COVID-19 and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups (2020). This report details potential factors that contribute to this disproportionality, but it falls short of addressing the depth of systemic racism in our country that leads to these outcomes. I was bothered by it and other reports from the U.S. Department of Education which do the same. I began to wonder. In this climate, how do we address inequities and effectively prepare pre-professional students to engage in practices that can positively facilitate individual change in communication and transform broader society? As an instructor, what will I need to do to help prepare future SLPs to address inequities and injustices? I share with you some musings that I have had during this time to help me answer that question so that I don’t “fall short” in talking about and discussing the role of systematic oppression in health and educational disparities. My reflections are related to a talk I gave at last year’s National Black Association of Speech Language and Hearing (NBASLH) Convention on social-justice and speech-language pathology. NBASLH’s call for papers to address the COVID-19 crisis provides an ideal forum to discuss many of the key points from that talk and why they need to be considered within the context of teaching during this pandemic.

 

Navigating the Academic Educational Response to COVID-19 in Communication Sciences and Disorders: A Faculty Perspective
Robert Mayo, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, School of Health and Human Sciences, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has wrought unprecedented levels of morbidity and mortality on a global scale. The United States leads the world in the total number of COVID-19 cases with more than two million persons infected and 120,000+ deaths. In this paper, the responses to COVID-19 of the healthcare system, the communication sciences and disorders profession, professional associations/organizations, and universities are discussed as are communication sciences and disorders faculty transitions from face-to-face to online teaching and learning.

 

African American Students and Undergraduate Education: A Critical Social Commentary
Joy L. Kennedy, PhD, CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

This commentary focuses on the challenging recruitment and retention matters of African American (AA) undergraduate students in the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). Most recently, Ginsberg (2018a) offers a framework to facilitate the understanding of AA student recruitment and retention matters in CSD using the qualitative responses of AA speech-language pathologists. As a result, this commentary provides insight to the author’s experiences with AA undergraduate students using themes of community, outside resource connections, and culturally competent, caring mentoring. Furthermore, this article provides recommendations for inclusive teaching and learning practices with AA undergraduate students during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Challenges in Academia Due to COVID-19
Michele L. Norman, PhD, CCC-SLP, ASHA Fellow, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC, USA

When the world stood still in the midst of the declared pandemic, social distancing and self-quarantining became the new normal. While these are unprecedented times, people of color are disproportionately affected in unpredictable ways. Health reports show that the number of African-Americans dying with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is great-er than the proportion of those who reside in several major cities. This disparity is believed to be related to the disproportionate number of persons in the African American community with medical complexities which put them at higher risk of contracting and ultimately dying from COVID-19, confirming the reports from China that the outcomes were worse for persons with co-existing medical conditions. America has been bombarded hourly with disturbing news about the increasing number of positive cases and the rising number of deaths. What we aren’t hearing is how the decision to close college campuses has affected the students and academicians; especially those belonging to minority racial groups, in the weight of the pandemic fall out. Specifically, are there issues that disproportionally affect Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) programs and their African American students.

 

COVID-19, Telehealth, and the Digital Divide: In the Rush to Provide Telepractice, Who Gets Left Behind?
Reva M. Zimmerman, PhC, CCC-SLP, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

ABSTRACT

In an effort to mitigate community transmission of COVID-19, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs), audiologists, and communication sciences and disorders scientists quickly shifted their practice and research online. However, the rise of telepractice creates new barriers to care and research participation in populations that are historically unserved or underserved. This commentary describes the populations most at risk for being left behind due to the “digital divide” and the specific barriers that limit access to telepractice services and research. Implications and cursory suggestions are discussed.

 

Cultural Considerations When Working with Diverse Children Via Telehealth during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Barbara Lynna Bustamante, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Gallaudet University, Washington, DC, USA
Jasmine Stevens, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

This article will focus on the knowledge and skills that clinicians need when providing speech-language services to children from diverse backgrounds via telehealth. Information regarding culture competence, parental involvement, and working in the home environment will be provided. In addition, treatment resources are presented with a description of how to use with parents to enhance patients’ speech-language skills.

 

COVID-19 and Teletherapy: An Opportunity to Thrive Professionally
Roger L. Grimsley, M.Ed., CCC-SLP, Sutter Care at Home, Almeda, CA, USA

ABSTRACT

This commentary offers the author’s opinions on COVID-19 teletherapy and the opportunity for speech-language pathologists of color to embrace technology and thrive professionally.

 

Clinical Strategies for Pediatric In-Patient Speech-Language Pathologists Working in a Hospital Setting During COVID-19 Pandemic
Maura Collins, M.S., CCC-SLP
Debra Anderson, EdD, CCC-SLP
Meagan Ledder, M.A., CCC-SLP
Kimberly A. Wood, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

This article focuses on strategies that speech-language pathologists may use when working in a hospital setting. The COVID-19 pandemic has required providers in healthcare to adapt service delivery to minimize risks to all involved yet provide them effectively and efficiently. Information regarding safety, the essential nature of speech-language pathology, and service delivery will be provided.

 

Challenges and Quasi Solutions While Working Through the COVID-19 Pandemic: Out-patient Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology in a Hospital Setting
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Debra Anderson, EdD, CCC-SLP

Maura Collins, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Margarita Bautista-Vigas, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

Speech-language pathologists, who work in medical settings, may have questions about service delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article will focus on questions and possible solutions that speech-language pathologists who work in an outpatient pediatric medical setting had while delivering services to children during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Information regarding safety, clinical-changes, licensure, legal issues, and productivity/Budgetary impact will be addressed.

 

Conducting Speech-Language Evaluations in an Outpatient Pediatric Setting during the COVID- 19 Pandemic
Sharon Netta Curcio, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, DC, USA
Stephanie M. Nixon, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, speech-language pathologists have faced challenges navigating telehealth and in-person services. Potential challenges to the evaluation process and quasi-solutions for addressing them are discussed in this article.

 

Challenges and Quasi-Solutions for Speech Sound Production and Motor Speech Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Stephanie M. Nixon, PhD, CCC-SLP
Alexandra Spector Stahl, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, speech-language pathologists have faced many challenges specific to providing appropriate services for patients with speech sound disorders including motor speech disorders. Potential challenges and quasi-solutions are discussed in this paper.

 

Working During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Audiology Procedures and Practice in a Pediatric Hospital Setting
Tracey Ambrose, AuD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Irene P. Sideris, PhD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

Some audiologists have managed to be essential during the COVID-19 Pandemic. In the pediatric hospital setting described here, audiologists modified clinical services and are proactive in implementing safety measures in order to address the needs of patients.

 

Tips and Strategies for Working Through the COVID-19 Pandemic in an Infant Hearing Screening Setting
Irene P. Sideris, PhD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Tracey Ambrose, AuD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Irene P. Sideris, PhD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

There are national regulations that govern the procedures for newborn hearing screening programs. Even during the COVID-19 Pandemic, these regulations must be followed. This article is designed to highlight the clinical modifications made by a managing audiologist in order to meet the requirements. Information regarding staff education, changing communication policies, patient safety, and clinical service modification will be presented.

 

Challenges and Quasi Solutions While Working Through the COVID-19 Pandemic: Speech-Language Pathology in a PUBLIC-SCHOOL Setting
LaShundra Collins Young, M.S., CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, Washington, DC, USA
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

Providing speech-language services during the COVID-19 Pandemic proved to be challenge in all work settings; however, speech-language pathologists working in the schools experienced particular barriers to service delivery. This article will discuss some challenges experienced by speech-language pathologists working in an urban Title 1school and some solutions created to combat the challenges.

 

Patient Safety for Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USATracey Ambrose, AuD, CCC-A, Children’s National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA
Lemmietta G. McNeilly, PhD., CCC-SLP, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD, USA

To keep patients safe during the COVID-19 pandemic, changes are being made to clinical environments, service delivery is being provided via telepractice, and wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) is now part of the norm. This article will focus on maintaining the safety of patients, speech-language pathologists and audiologists during evaluation and treatment sessions. Necessary changes to clinical spaces will be highlighted, as well as issues that should be addressed or considered that will reduce medical errors and adverse patient safety events.

 

COVID-19: Upholding Professional Ethics in the Midst of a Global Health Pandemic
Tommie L. Robinson, Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, Children’s National Hospital, Scottish Rite Center for Childhood Language Disorders, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, USA

George Castle, PhD., CCC-SLP, New York University, New York, NY, USA
Sharon E. Moss, PhD, CCC-SLP, American Society for Association Executives Foundation, Washington, DC, USA

ABSTRACT

This article is intended to provide examples of how the ASHA Code of Ethics should help inform practice dilemmas and challenges that clinicians, educators, mentors, researchers, supervisors and administrators may encounter as a consequence of the current global health pandemic – COVID-19.

 

COVID-19 Racial-Ethnic Disparities Should Not Be a Surprise: So What Next?
Charles Ellis, PhD CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, Communication Outcomes and Equity Laboratory, East Carolina University, East Carolina University Center for Health Disparities, Greenville, NC, USA

Many have heard the old saying that “when white folks catch a cold, black folks get pneumonia”. Although it is unclear who this classic saying should be attributed to, most know what it means and how it relates to COVID-19. On April 7, 2020 Dr. Anthony Fauci, Director of the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and head of the White House Coronavirus Task Force stood before the nation and introduced some to the plight of African American health and the longstanding disparities that exist. For some this was breaking news. I was not in that number.


 

Volume 15, Number 1, Spring 2020

(posted 5/28/2020)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

A Case Study Investigation of the Communication Experiences of a Deaf Karenni Refugee Student and Family
Kimberly J. Green, Ed.D., CCC-SLP, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY, USA

ABSTRACT

Understanding the experiences and perceptions of children and their families as they are served in school settings is of great importance. Families present with dynamic, moving parts which must be taken into consideration when weighing best practices for assessment and intervention. In instances of serving children and families from backgrounds vastly different from that of the clinician, context for these experiences and perceptions can provide valuable information which may offer direction for the implementation of services (Mindel & John, 2018). A clinician’s reference for a family’s cultural and linguistic background is of even more importance when hearing impairment is a factor. Even when language barriers are addressed between the family and clinician, issues in communication may continue to persist. It is not uncommon for child refugees who are deaf to have limited or even no exposure to spoken, written, and/or signed language, which further compromises communication efforts (Akamatsu & Cole, 2000; Sivunen, N., 2019). Lack of education on deaf issues and strategies for communication is also cited by Akamatsu and Cole (2000) as a limitation for most families of a refugee child who is deaf. The current qualitative case study examines the experiences of a high-school Karenni student with a profound bilateral hearing loss who arrived in the United States with their family as refugees from Burma (Myanmar). The current study provides insight into the experiences of this student who is profoundly deaf as well as perspectives of their family as they have navigated the communication, educational, social, and cultural facets of life in the United States. Aspects such as the role of the family in decision-making and modes of communication are also examined as the family tries to remain connected through Karenni language and culture, American Sign Language, and English.

 

The Influence of Ethnicity and Residence on Presence of Stuttering in Children
Patrick M. Briley, PhD CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC
Charles Ellis, Jr., PhD CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC

ABSTRACT

Stuttering can be a debilitating disorder that impacts all races and cultures, though there have been few reports that have focused specifically on the influence of race/ethnicity on stuttering. While research in other disciplines suggest regional variability in the presence of health-related conditions, this consideration has been limited in the field of stuttering. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use population data to compare the presence of stuttering between racial/ethnic groups, as a whole, and between geographical regions. This study utilized data from the National Health Interview Survey, which showed that African American children were at greater odds of experiencing stuttering than white children, while Hispanic children were not. Additionally, odds of stuttering were greater for African American children in all regions, with the exception of the Northeast. Current findings of racial and regional differences in the presence of stuttering are discussed, along with potential avenues for future research.

 

A Description of Self-Generated Narratives from African American Preschoolers
Mia Kimmons, MS, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Amy Wait Hobek, PhD, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA

ABSTRACT

This study examined macrostructure characteristics of spoken narrative production from self-generated narratives of African American (AA) preschool children as analyzed by the Index of Narrative Complexity (INC; Peterson et al., 2008). Twenty-six children who were enrolled in two full-day Head Start classrooms in a single Head Start building participated in this study. Narratives samples from a prior study were used from an intervention study in which children created picture books and told them to a researcher. The narratives of the children from the control group who did not receive the intervention were collected and analyzed for narrative characteristics. Higher narrative element scores and increased density of narrative elements were noted as indicated by the Index of Narrative Complexity (INC; Peterson et al., 2008) as age groups increased. The results from the current study supports the notion that self-generated narratives may provide children with an opportunity to generate narrative elements independently. Self-generated narratives of AA children may supply a sound context for involving cultural as well as linguistic behaviors that provide less rigidity to storytelling.

 

COVID-19 and the Mad Dash to Telepractice: A Tutorial to Establish Community-Based Telerehabilitation for Aphasia Using WebEx Videoconferencing
Charles Ellis Jr., PhD, CCC-SLP, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Patrick Briley, PhD, CCC-SLP, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Robert Mayo, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

Telepractice is an approach that has been used successfully to treat acute stroke in individuals residing in rural communities. Yet until very recently, progress in the use of telepractice approaches for aphasia has been slow to emerge. However, the recent COVID-19 pandemic has forced the field of Speech-Language Pathology (SLP) to Rapidly develop and implement new models of service provision and particularly in the area of aphasia rehabilitation. A wealth of research has shown that telepractice approaches for aphasia rehabilitation or “telerehabilitation” can be utilized to provide evidenced-based treatment for aphasia while overcoming access to care issues for individuals with aphasia. Such approaches have never been so urgently needed given the dramatically changing landscape in field of SLP since the emergence of COVID-19 in the US. In this tutorial we describe the use of WebEx, a videoconferencing program, as one potential approach to provide comprehensive aphasia telerehabilitation treatment in a community-based setting.


 

2019 Issues

Volume 14, Number 1, Spring 2019

(posted 5/8/2019)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

A SoTL Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Online PRAXIS Preparation Course
Kay T. Payne, Ph.D., Howard University, Washington, D.C., USA
Valencia Perry, Ph.D., Howard University, Washington, D.C., USA
Jazmine Gordon, M.S., Howard University, Washington, D.C., USA
Latecia Lee, M.S., Howard University, Washington, D.C., USA
ABSTRACT
Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) investigations examine the relationship between instructional efficacy versus actual learning in higher education in higher education. This SoTL investigation examined the effectiveness of an online preparation course in improving performance on the Praxis in Speech-Language Pathology. Participants included 33 students enrolled in a speech-language pathology master’s program. Utilizing scores from a pre-test, final examination and the SLP Praxis, data analysis measured performance during and after the course and determined the magnitude of improvement. Results confirmed that the course was effective in increasing scores and that the online independent study preparation course was an effective instructional approach for students preparing for the SLP Praxis.
Exploring Provocative Childhood Discourse and Making a Case for Greater Cultural Competence in Speech-Language Pathology
Camilo Maldonado, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, SUNY Buffalo State, Buffalo, NY, USA
Kimberly Hassett, M.S. Ed., CCC-SLP, Newark Central School District, Wayne County, NY, USA
ABSTRACT
Reductively stated, discourse is the way in which individuals communicate their knowledge of and roles within their surrounding world. Many speech-language pathologists have a unique opportunity to explore the varied and developing race, class, and gender-based discourses of our youngest clients. We argue that having a robust understanding of these topics increases cultural competence and positively impacts the ways in which we assess, diagnosis, and treat young children. In this article, implications for engaging in these provocative interactions will be provided and the need for continued training in diversity in speech-language pathology will be discussed. We also enumerate detailed recommendations to assist in the continued pursuit of greater cultural understanding for our pre- and in-service colleagues.
Young African American Adults with Aphasia: A Case Series
Charles Ellis, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Robert Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
ABSTRACT
Little is known about African Americans with aphasia. Virtually no studies have examined the impact of aphasia in young adult African Americans, even though stroke, the most common cause of aphasia, occurs far more frequently in African Americans at younger ages than other racial-ethnic groups. Aphasia occurring at younger non-traditional ages has substantial implications for survivors’ quality of life, friendships and family-caregiver relationships. The objective of this case series report is to explore the impact of aphasia in African Americans with onset of aphasia before the age of 65. The observations of the cases will be discussed in the broader aphasia literature while also considering unique implications for African Americans.
From English Rhotic Approximant to Spanish Rhotic Trill: A Case Study
Ahmed Rivera Campos, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Davies School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this case study was to explore the use ultrasound imaging as a biofeedback tool to teach production of the apicoalveolar rhotic trill /r/ to an adult Spanish second language learner. To gather and analyze data, a single case research design was implemented. Ultrasound imaging allowed for monitoring of tongue section positioning during production of speech sounds and allowed for individualized feedback focused on accurate and inaccurate tongue section positioning. Results show changes in tongue configuration during ultrasound sessions as well as post-treatment. Implications for clinical and teaching practices are furthered discussed.
Predicting Competency in Graduate Clinical Training
Robin C. Gillespie, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Communication Disorders Program, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Sheila Bridges-Bond, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Communication Disorders Program, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Tom Scheft, Ph.D., Curriculum and Instruction Department, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
Jonathan Livingston, Ph.D., Psychology Department, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina, USA
ABSTRACT
Graduate programs in communication sciences and disorders (CSD) are charged with the responsibility of providing quality clinical training experiences that promote each student’s growth and development toward achieving the knowledge, skills and professionalism critical to achieving clinical competence. Further, graduate programs must engage in evaluative and predictive monitoring of each student’s growth toward achieving the prescribed competencies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific clinical skillsets used to evaluate graduate students can predict success toward achieving clinical competency. This pilot quantitative correlational study examined pre-existing final (end of the semester) data of 103 first-year graduate clinicians. The Student Clinical Evaluation was the instrument of choice, utilizing data spanning 10 years. This study examined the correlational relationships between sections and/or questions on the Student Clinical Evaluation instrument. Professionalism (e.g., self-evaluative, reflective, critical thinking, etc.) was found to be strongly predictive of clinical competence. Yet, it was evident that many students do not enter graduate training equipped with these skills. These findings suggest that intentional training of self-evaluative, reflective, and critical thinking skills is critical to growing highly competent professionals who practice effective habits of the mind.
“Readability” of Communication Sciences and Disorders Journals: A Method for Improving the Scholarly/Professional Writing Performance of Communication Sciences and Disorders Students
Ronald C. Jones, Ph.D., COI. Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA
Robert Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
Michael Cotter, M.S., Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA, USA
Carolyn M. Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Communication Research, Evaluation and Wellness Specialists, LLC, Burlington, NC, USA
Olivia Hinsley, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA
Alana Thompson, Franklin Pierce University, Rindge, NH, USA
ABSTRACT
The Flesch-Kincaid Readability Scale was used to assess the readability of abstracts from peer-reviewed articles randomly selected from journals in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). It was postulated that the abstracts from professional journals, because of their peer-review or refereed standards, could serve as exemplars for students to model in trying to improve their scholarly or professional writing performance. The Flesch-Kincaid (F-K) was also used to evaluate writing samples from two groups of students: 1) freshmen communications students, and 2) graduate CSD majors. The results suggest that journal abstracts from CSD journals do reflect readability standards that are appropriate for a college-educated audience. Also, the results suggest a need to introduce scholarly/professional writing skills training to prospective CSD majors prior to their entry into graduate training programs where heightened writing performance is expected.
The Impact of African American English on Language Proficiency in Adolescent Speakers
June Graham-Bethea, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC, USA
Alan Kamhi, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
ABSTRACT
To examine previous findings that AAE use is related to complex syntax in spoken language, this study examined the relationship between AAE, complex syntax, and lexical diversity in adolescent African American English-speaking students in spoken and written language. There were no significant differences in syntactic complexity, type token ratio, and vocabulary use as a function of AAE use. The only significant correlations between AAE use and these measures were in the low moderate range (r = .32-.36). The findings of this study were thus inconsistent with previous studies by Craig and Washington (1994, 1995), but were consistent with the more recent study by Jackson and Roberts (2001). Future studies should continue to examine how AAE changes over time and how AAE use may influence syntactic and lexical aspects of language.
Culturally Responsive Evaluation Practices of North Carolina Speech Language Pathologists
Mariam M. Abdelaziz, M.A., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
Robert Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA
ABSTRACT
Social, behavioral, and educational research has begun to examine the evaluation of diverse individuals and programs using culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) theoretical framework. A survey of North Carolina speech-language pathologists (SLPs) was conducted to examine their assessment practices with English language learners (ELLs) in the context of CRE theory as well as their confidence assessing ELLs and their academic experiences. Findings indicate that NC SLPs are using more mixed-method evaluation approaches with ELLs, however, they are not using culturally responsive assessment procedures consistently with non-native English-speaking students. Further, the majority of respondents report not feeling confident in assessing ELLs, nor do they feel that their academic experiences prepared them to assess ELLs.

2018 Issues

Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2018

(posted 7/3/2018)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

Correlation Between Communicative Functions of Mothers and Preschoolers of Different Racial and Income Groups
Danai Kasambira Fannin, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA
Elizabeth R. Crais, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Oscar A. Barbarin, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, USA

ABSTRACT

While language differences by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) have been identified, the domain of pragmatics, specifically, communicative functions (CF) has been understudied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate mothers’ CF use with African American, European American, and Latino American boys and girls of middle and low SES. CFs were coded from each dyads’ (N=95) learning and play interaction from the National Center for Early Development and Learning’s (NCEDL, 2005) study of Family and Social Environments (Aikens, Coleman, & Bryant, 2008). Demographic factors were correlated with talkativeness, and Directing and Mother Directing, Responding, and Projecting were important predictors. Gender predicted child Self-maintaining and Predicting, and limited child demographic predictors suggest that they might not affect CFs as directly as mother CFs. Identification of associations among mother demographics and CFs can enhance comprehension of home communication styles for researchers and clinicians to better understand referral decision-making based on pragmatic indices for diverse preschoolers.

 

African Americans and Aphasia: A 25 Year Review
Charles Ellis, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Communication Equity and Outcomes Laboratory, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

Aphasia is a devastating communication disorder that commonly occurs after stroke and reduces the quality of life of the stroke survivor. There is considerable concern that racial-ethic disparities in aphasia outcomes may exist with worse outcomes among African Americans that parallel worse general stroke outcomes. To date, there have been few attempts to organize and explore the aphasia literature to better understand the impact of aphasia in African Americans. Therefore, the objective of this review was to examine research in African Americans with aphasia over a 25 year period to organize the findings, further discussion, and stimulate research.

 

Caregiver Perceptions and the Age of Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis
Twyla Y. Perryman, Ph.D, CCC-SLP, University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA, USA
Linda R. Watson, Ed.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

In an effort to understand what may lead to differences in age of diagnosis for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), this study investigated correlates of the timing of diagnosis. These correlates include individual differences in magnitude of concerns about early “red flag” behaviors and attributions of initial symptoms. The findings indicate that caregivers’ level of worry about initial ASD symptoms and caregivers’ attributions of the symptoms to behavioral challenges were related to age of ASD diagnosis. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that individual differences in caregivers’ knowledge and interpretation of symptoms related to ASD may have an impact on age of ASD identification, and may have implications for promoting public awareness of symptoms related to ASD.

 

Moving from Conference Presentations to Scholarly Publications
Charles Ellis, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
Robert Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA

ABSTRACT

Conference presentations offer an opportunity for faculty at all ranks to present their research to attentive audiences and receive feedback critical to the presenter’s research program. However, for many presenters, conference presentations do not advance beyond the conference itself and ultimately does little to advance the presenter’s research agenda. More specifically, many conference presentations do not transition to publications which are critical to career advancement and the promotion and tenure process. In this paper, we examine the issue of advancing conference presentations to publications and highlight factors that may preclude this process and ultimately advancement to senior faculty ranks.


2017 Issues

Volume 12, Number 2, Fall 2017

(posted 12/7/2017)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

A Framework for Developing Cultural Competence in Speech-Language Pathology: A Tutorial
Yolanda Keller‐Bell, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Diane Scott, Ph.D., CCC-A
Sandra Jackson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Katrina Miller, M.A., CCC-SLP
Robin Cox Gillespie, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Sheila J. Bridges-Bond, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
North Carolina Central University

ABSTRACT

Accredited academic and clinical education programs in speech-language pathology must reflect current knowledge, skills, technology, and scope of practice. The diversity of society must be reflected throughout the curriculum (CAA, 2014). We present a framework for infusing cultural and linguistic information throughout the curriculum to facilitate the development of cultural competency in graduate students. In addition to infusing culturally and linguistically diverse approaches into the graduate curriculum, we describe several examples of focused initiatives including a bilingual speech-language pathology track and opportunities for students to study abroad to conduct research and provide speech and language services in China and in the Dominican Republic. By infusing multicultural issues throughout the academic and clinical curricula, the framework that we present is designed to prepare speech-language pathologists to effectively serve all populations.

 

Using Talking Photonovelas for Education About Stroke: A Data-Driven Tutorial and Demonstration
Silvia Martinez, Ed.D., CCC-SLP, Howard University, Washington, D.C.

ABSTRACT

To address health disparities, professionals and settings are called upon to develop new and creative approaches for health education purposes. In particular, one segment of the population that needs special attention are individuals who have low literacy levels. This population has been identified as at high risk for many conditions including hypertension and stroke. This article presents a tutorial for developing Talking Photonovelas (TPs) to educate about stroke for audiences who may not have the reading skills required to understand written materials usually presented at high readability levels. In addition, a demonstration on the use of the TP developed and a summary of results are included. After using the TP, adult students increased their scores. The percentage of students gaining an increase in scores varied depending on the TP subthemes. Finally, based on accuracy levels, it was determined that one TP view would not suffice to gain all the basic information needed about stroke, stroke prevention and how to proceed in the presence of a stroke victim.

 

General Professional Consideration for Use with Bilingual Children
Kim Martinez, B.S.
Kia N. Johnson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
University of Houston, Houston, TX

ABSTRACT

Growth trends indicate that Spanish-English families are on the rise, and this leads to an increase in the likelihood of a monolingual clinician treating an individual with a language difference (Pew Research Center, 2008; Instituto Cervantes, 2016). The increasing diversity in languages presents a new challenge for monolingual healthcare providers in their efforts to work with bilingual Spanish-English clients and their families. This commentary provides discussion of the following professional considerations to meet the needs of those clinicians: (1) Establishing Rapport through Verbal Communication, (2) Written Communication, and (3) Bilingual Assessment Methods. A clinical scenario is included with each professional consideration to aid in practical application for service delivery in speech-language pathology or audiology. This commentary also provides a brief overview of the Spanish language as well as discussion on the use of culturally related terminology when working with clients and their families from Spanish-speaking countries.

 

Challenges and Rewards of Private Practice: An Exploratory Study of African American Speech-Language Pathologists
Deana Lacy McQuitty, SLP.D., CCC-SLP, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC
Robert Mayo, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC
Regina Lemmon, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Columbia College, Columbia, SC

ABSTRACT

This exploratory study examined the perceptions of African American speech-language pathologists who owned or co-owned a private practice about the challenges and rewards of working in this employment venue. Six participants were engaged in a focus group interview. The participants represented the major geographic regions in North Carolina. Client benefits, career challenges, and job satisfaction were discussed as thematic highlights. Interpretation of participants’ comments revealed the need for culturally sensitive and culturally responsive service delivery when working with diverse populations. Such dynamics play a factor in establishing trust and rapport building between the client and clinician. Additionally, themes identified the need for advocacy and networking with critical stakeholders as key in the vitality of the profession and promoting more culturally and linguistically diverse professionals within the discipline. Further research is suggested to explore more generalizable results among a larger number and wider geographic range of private practitioners in speech-language pathology.

 

Self-Assessment of Cultural Responsiveness in Speech-Language Pathology
Chelsea Privette, M.Ed., CF-SLP, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Sheila Bridges-Bond, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC
Robin Gillespie, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC
James Osler, Ed.D., North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC

ABSTRACT

All practicing speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are required to demonstrate cultural competence when engaged in ethical clinical practice as a board certified practitioner. While graduate training programs are required to provide a curriculum that addresses Multicultural/Multilingual Issues (MMI; e.g. academic and clinical experiences), SLPs have expressed a lack of confidence in their delivery of culturally competent services to diverse populations. The purpose of this study is to examine the self-reported frequency with which SLPs use culturally responsive strategies as a result of their graduate training experience. A 45-item electronic survey was disseminated to SLPs holding a Certificate of Clinical Competence who indicated whether they had completed an MMI-dedicated course during their graduate studies. While results indicated that both the Infused Only (IO) model and the Dedicated and Infused (DI) model have a statistically significant effect on the service delivery of SLPs to culturally and linguistically diverse populations, those who took an MMI-dedicated course utilize culturally responsive strategies more consistently than those who did not. The implications of these findings suggest that CSD curriculum must be reformed in response to current research across disciplines, which supports general infusion with dedicated coursework for producing culturally and linguistically responsive clinicians.

 

Effects of Mothers' and Preschoolers' Communicative Function Use and Demographics on Concurrent Language and Social Skills
Danai Kasambira Fannin, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of Northern Illinois, DeKalb, IL
Oscar A. Barbarin, Ph.D., University of Maryland, College Park
Elizabeth R. Crais, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

ABSTRACT

Achievement gaps exist between children from racial/ethnic minority and low SES homes and their peers, yet clear explanations for the gap have been elusive. In addition to vocabulary, some are examining pragmatics to help understand the gap, as functional language can a) reflect how caregivers stimulate language; b) show how preschoolers communicate and; c) affect academic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine links between linguistic performance and the communicative functions (CFs) of typically developing African American, European American, and Latino American preschool boys and girls and their mothers. CFs were coded from one learning and play mother-child interaction (N=95) from the National Center for Early Development and Learning’s (NCEDL, 2005) study of Family and Social Environments. Relationships among CFs, demographics and performance on standardized language, receptive vocabulary, and social competence measures were analyzed. Mother Reporting, mother Reasoning, mother Total Utterances, gender, and poverty predicted performance, while Predicting was the only child CF to predict performance. Associations between gender, poverty, and mothers’ CFs suggest that lower performance for boys and children who are poor may reflect a lack of experience rather than a lack of basic communicative competence, as few child CFs were related to performance. By implication, determinations of language deficits in CLD children should consider that observed difficulty may be due to differences in early exposure to some CFs by their mothers or how teachers are measuring performance.

 

NBASLH Members' Perceptions of Communication Services to Transgender Individuals
Jairus-Joaquin Matthews, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Jessica R. Sullivan, Ph.D.
Elena Freeman, B.S.
Kylee Myers, B.S.
University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA

ABSTRACT

People who are transgender often seek resources to help them express their preferred gender identity. These resources include pursuing the services of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) for communication and voice therapy. However, there are few clinically and culturally competent SLPs who are able to serve the transgender population. An important aspect of cultural competence is the assessment of attitudes toward culturally diverse populations. Few studies have explored how SLPs view their professional role and ethical obligations in providing services to transgender people. The purpose of this article is to assess how SLPs and students of speech-language pathology perceive their responsibilities in the treatment of transgender clients. An electronic survey was completed by 127 students and professionals at the 2017 annual meeting of the National Black Association of Speech Language and Hearing (NBASLH). The results indicated that the majority of respondents agree or strongly agree that serving transgender clients is within their scope of practice, and is their ethical obligation. However, few participants indicated that they had been trained in this area or had plans to pursue training. Implications for ways to increase the number of culturally and clinically competent SLPs serving this population are provided.


 

Volume 12, Number 1, Spring 2017

(posted 5/22/2017)

CONTENTS INCLUDE:

Great Minds Don't Think Alike, They Communicate to Collaborate
Brenda Everett Mitchell, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
Dweuna Wyre, Ph.D., Indiana State University, Terra Haute, Indiana

ABSTRACT

Historical and contemporary studies focusing on collaborative learning have cited benefits regarding student performance and retention of course content. However, few researchers have focused on the usage of collaborative testing in introductory courses and more specifically the perceptions of the experience as communicated by students. To help address this gap in the literature, the authors explored students’ perceptions of collaborative testing in introductory courses (communication sciences and disorders and human resource development) at two universities. Study results indicate usage of collaborative testing in introductory courses helps students to process course information at a deeper level and learn effective communication strategies to work cooperatively with peers. Implications for instructors are also addressed to aid in effective implementation of this learner-centered teaching strategy in introductory courses.

 

How Do Language Experience and Processing Speed Influence the Acquistion of Narrow Phonetic Transcription?
Amy Louise Schwarz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
Maria Dolores Resendiz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
JoAnn Hervey, BS and Charlsa Matson, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
Kathryn Breon, MS, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX

ABSTRACT

Between 2010 and 2014, one-third of undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in Communication Disorders programs in California, Texas, and Florida were culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD). No published studies report on how CLD students acquire phonetic transcription of non-disordered and disordered spoken English, a critical skill for assessing and treating clients with articulation and/or phonological disorders. We tested whether language experience (i.e., monolingual English experience, early Spanish experience) and processing speed predict acquisition of narrow phonetic transcription. In this retrospective exploratory study, self-reported data on transcription accuracy across 15 periods from 44 undergraduates majoring in Communication Disorders were analyzed using growth curve models. For disordered spoken English, early Spanish experience students initially reported significantly lower transcription accuracy rates and grew at a faster rate than their monolingual English peers. The groups did not differ significantly in processing speed. For non-disordered spoken English, neither processing speed nor language experience predicts acquisition. Although narrow transcription of disordered spoken English is difficult for all students, it may tap a speech perception threshold for students with early Spanish experience.

 

Linguistic Trade-Offs After A Short-Term Narrative Intervention
Maria Resendiz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas
Lisa M. Bedore, PhD, CCC-SLP, Elizabeth D. Peña, PhD, CCC-SLP, University of Texas at Austin
Christine Fiestas, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas A&M University - Kingsville
Maria Diana Gonzales, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX

Amy Louise Schwarz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX

ABSTRACT

Long term gains in syntactic complexity for children with language impairment (LI) occur when syntactic complexity is explicitly targeted in narrative interventions (Petersen, Gillam, Spencer, & Gillam, 2010). Short term gains in language skills not explicitly targeted, such as increased production of syntactic complexity, are rarely reported in the literature (Davies, Shanks, & Davies, 2004; Wolter & Green, 2013). Despite this evidence, Ebbels (2014) suggests that indirect approaches can be effective for teaching syntax. The current study tests Ebbels (2014) assertion by comparing measures of syntactic complexity in the narrative productions of 46 children (M age = 7 years, 6 months) from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds after two intervention sessions that targeted story grammar components, but not syntactic complexity. Fourteen children were identified as LI and 32 children were identified as typically developing (TD). All children exhibited increases from pre-testing to post-testing in the number of grammatical utterances they produced. However, only children with LI demonstrated a linguistic trade off. Their use of complex utterances and morpho-syntactic overgeneralizations both increased. So, the trade-off for improvements in complex syntax is morpho-syntactic accuracy.

 

Reported Book-Sharing Practices of Spanish-English Speech-Language Pathologists Who Target Academic Language in Preschoolers
Amy Louise Schwarz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
Maria D. Gonzales, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
Maria D. Resendiz, PhD, CCC-SLP, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
Hervé Abdi, PhD, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX

ABSTRACT

When an adult and a child read a book together, they interact with the book. To promote academic language use, parents and educators are encouraged to direct 60% of their talk during book-sharing sessions to the cognitive and linguistic content that preschoolers have already mastered and to direct 40% to the cognitive and linguistic content that is relatively abstract (e.g., higher level vocabulary, predictions, inferences). Past research has viewed book sharing largely through a monolingual lens. When another language is added to book sharing, the relationships among the book, the adult, and the child become more complex. To capture this complexity, we surveyed 90 Spanish-English bilingual speech language pathologists (SLPs) who treat Spanish-English preschoolers for academic language to analyze the complex relationships among the book, the adult, and the child. Our online survey was designed to evaluate the multivariate effects of a book factor (i.e., language version of books), adult factors (e.g., experience, reading behavior), and child factors (i.e., language input, existence of home reading routine). Two patterns in the data explained 90.69% of the total variance of the responses. For preschoolers receiving Spanish input, SLPs who used books written in Spanish tended to read every word of the text whereas SLPs who translated English books into Spanish tended to read only some text. For preschoolers receiving equal amounts of Spanish and English input, SLPs used dual language books or two books in each language. Only the SLPs who used translated books knew whether an adult read at home to the preschoolers. SLPs must know whether bilingual preschoolers are read to at home because preschoolers unfamiliar with book sharing discourse routines may not know how to respond. SLPs should not translate English books into Spanish because the academic language targets will likely be compromised. Alternative clinical activities are presented.

 

Influence of Age of Academic L2 Exposure on Maze Use in Bilingual Adults
Rahul Chakraborty, Ph.D., Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas
Celeste Domsch, Ph.D., Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas
Maria Diana Gonzales, Ph.D., Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas

ABSTRACT

This study examined the influence of age of academic second language (L2) exposure on mazes. Seventeen bilingual adults, varying in ages of initial academic L2 exposure and proficiency, formed two groups. Participants described three culturally calibrated pictures in L2. From their narratives, pauses, repetitions, and revisions were measured. A time domain measure, empty pause, was sensitive to L2 exposure and proficiency. Fewer empty pauses were used by bilinguals with higher L2proficiency. The influence of cognitive-linguistic processing was discussed. Overgeneralizing the findings is cautioned as the target languages, nature of the participants, language proficiency of the bilinguals, and the tasks may vary across studies.


 

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